# Electronic Devices - Online Test

Q1. Basic materials used in the present solid state electronic devices like diode, transistor, ICs, etc are
Explaination / Solution:

Semiconductors are materials that have electrical conductivity between conductors such as most metals and nonconductors or insulators like ceramics. Semiconductor material is used in the manufacturing of electrical components and used in electronic devices such as transistors and diodes. Semiconductors are the basic materials used in the present solid state electronic devices like diode, transistor, ICs etc

Q2. In the case of metals the valence and conduction bands have
Explaination / Solution:

The materials can be classified by the energy gap between their valence band and the conduction band. The valence band is the band consisting of the valence electron, and the conduction band remains empty. Conduction takes place when an electron jumps from valence band to conduction band and the gap between these two bands is forbidden energy gap. Wider the gap between the valence and conduction bands, higher the energy it requires for shifting an electron from valence band to the conduction band.

• In the case of conductors, this energy gap is absent or in other words conduction band, and valence band overlaps each other. Thus, electron requires minimum energy to jump from valence band. The typical examples of conductors are Silver, Copper, and Aluminium.
• In insulators, this gap is vast. Therefore, it requires a significant amount of energy to shift an electron from valence to conduction band. Thus, insulators are poor conductors of electricity. Mica and Ceramic are the well-known examples of insulation material.
• Semiconductors, on the other hand, have an energy gap which is in between that of conductors and insulators. This gap is typically more or less 1 eV, and thus, one electron requires energy more than conductors but less than insulators for shifting valence band to conduction band.

Q3. In the case of semiconductors the valence and conduction bands have
Explaination / Solution:

The materials can be classified by the energy gap between their valence band and the conduction band. The valence band is the band consisting of the valence electron, and the conduction band remains empty. Conduction takes place when an electron jumps from valence band to conduction band and the gap between these two bands is forbidden energy gap. Wider the gap between the valence and conduction bands, higher the energy it requires for shifting an electron from valence band to the conduction band.

• In the case of conductors, this energy gap is absent or in other words conduction band, and valence band overlaps each other. Thus, electron requires minimum energy to jump from valence band. The typical examples of conductors are Silver, Copper, and Aluminium.
• In insulators, this gap is vast. Therefore, it requires a significant amount of energy to shift an electron from valence to conduction band. Thus, insulators are poor conductors of electricity. Mica and Ceramic are the well-known examples of insulation material.
• Semiconductors, on the other hand, have an energy gap which is in between that of conductors and insulators. This gap is typically more or less 1 eV, and thus, one electron requires energy more than conductors but less than insulators for shifting valence band to conduction band.

Q4. Hole is a vacancy or lack of an electron and can travel through the semiconductor material. It can
Explaination / Solution:

Holes and electrons are the two types of charge carriers responsible for current in semiconductor materials. Holes in a metal or semiconductor crystal lattice can move through the lattice as electrons can, and act similarly to positively-charged particles. They play an important role in the operation of semiconductor devices such as transistors, diodes and integrated circuits. However they are not actually particles, but rather quasiparticles; they are different from the positron, which is the antiparticle of the electron.

Q5. In a pure, or intrinsic, semiconductor, valence band holes and conduction-band electrons are always present
Explaination / Solution:

An intrinsic semiconductor, also called an undoped semiconductor or i-type semiconductor, is a pure semiconductor without any significant dopant species present. The number of charge carriers is therefore determined by the properties of the material itself instead of the amount of impurities. In intrinsic semiconductors the number of excited electrons and the number of holes are equal: n = p.

Q6. doping of semiconductor is the process of
Explaination / Solution:

Doping is the process of adding impurities to intrinsic semiconductors to alter their properties. Normally Trivalent and Pentavalent elements are used to dope Silicon and Germanium. When an intrinsic semiconductor is doped with Trivalent impurity it becomes a P-Type semiconductor.

Q7. Motion of hole is a convenient way of describing
Explaination / Solution:

The holes are just the abscence of a electron in a energy band. But its easier to describe the abscence of a electron as a single moving positive charge than it is to describe the motion of all the other electrons in the band. In a band you have N electrons. Remove one of those electrons(by for instance p-doping) and you have N-1 electrons left. Now you can either choose to describe this with the behavior of those N-1 electrons. Or you can choose to describe it as if there is one single hole moving around in the band. So mathematicly the holes behave just like a positivly charged electron.

Q8. The total current in a semiconductor is
Explaination / Solution:

Electrons will experience a attractive force from the positive terminal, so they move towards the positive terminal of the battery by carrying the electric current.

Similarly holes will experience a attractive force from the negative terminal, so they moves towards the negative terminal of the battery by carrying the electric current.

Thus, in a semiconductor electric current is carried by both electrons and holes. In intrinsic semiconductor the number of free electrons in conduction band is equal to the number of holes in valence band.

The current caused by electrons and holes is equal in magnitude. The total current in intrinsic semiconductor is the sum of hole and electron current.

Total current = Electron current + Hole current I =

Q9. In n-type semiconductor the fifth electron
Explaination / Solution:

When we add a small quantity of impurity in a semiconductor than the impurity contributes either free electrons or holes to the semiconductor. As a result, the conducting property of semiconductor changes. The process of changing the conductive property of semiconductor by adding impurities is known as doping. Suppose, in any pure or intrinsic germanium or silicon semiconductor any pentavalent impurity is added. The pentavalent impurities are those which have atoms with five (5) valence electrons. As soon as we add the impurity to the semiconductor, the impurity atoms will replace some of the semiconductor atoms in the crystal structure. Now four (4) of the five (5) valance electrons of impurity atom will involve in bonding with four neighborhood semiconductor atoms, but the fifth one electron will not find any place to occupy. This fifth electron of the impurity atom can be made available as free electron or negative charge carrier even if a very small amount of energy is applied.

Q10. In n-type semiconductor the total number of conduction electrons  is due to the,
Explaination / Solution:

When pentavalent impurity is added to an intrinsic or pure semiconductor (silicon or germanium), then it is said to be an n-type semiconductor. Pentavalent impurities such as phosphorus, arsenic, antimony etc are called donor impurity. In n-type semiconductor, the population of free electrons is more whereas the population of holes is less. Hence in n-type semiconductor free electrons are called majority carriers and holes are called minority carriers. Therefore, in a n-type semiconductor conduction is mainly because of motion of free electrons.