personnel- people employed in an organization or engaged in an organized undertaking such as military service.

No Explaination.

(B) there was no needed information (C) not really useful (D) would not have been

Consider first three element of the list, atleast one of them will be neither minimum nor maximum ϴ(1)

void foo (char *a) {

if (*a && *a ! = ' ') {

putchar (*a) ;

}

}

The output of the above function on input “ABCD EFGH” is

if condition fails
& returns controls

DCBA will be pointed

Match the above algorithms on the left to the corresponding design paradigm they follow.

Dijkstra shortest path algorithm find next node by choosing minimum distance hence greedy approach. Floyd warshall always apply dynamic programming, once it saves a cost and in the next iteration it will change if this is minimum hence dynamic. Binary search always divide on two parts .Hence divide and conquer. Backtracking uses by DFS, one it will reach to dead end it will take back track.

int partition (int a [ ], int n);

The function treats the first element of a [ ] as a pivot, and rearranges the array so that all
elements less than or equal to the pivot is in the left part of the array , and all elements greater
than the pivot is in the right part. In addition, it moves the pivot so that the pivot is the last
elements of the left part. The return value is the number of elements in the left part.

The following partially given function in the C programming language is used to find the K^{th} smallest element in an array a [ ] of size n using the partition function We assume
k ≤ n.

int kth _smallest (int a [ ], int n, int k)

{

int left _ end = partition (a,n);

if (left _ end + 1 == k) {

return a [left _ end];

}

if (left _ end + 1 > k) {

return kth _ smallest (__________________);

}else {

return kth_smallest (_______________________);

}

}

The missing argument lists are respectively

No Explaination.

(Start, T4); (write, T4,y,2,3); (Start, T1); (commit,T4); (write, T1,z,5,7);

(checkpoint);

(Start,T2); (write, T2,x,1,9); (commit,T2); (start,T3), (write,T3,z,7,2);

If a crash happens now and the system tries to recover using both undo and redo operations, what are the contents of the undo lists and the redo list?

As T1 & T3are not yet committed they must be undone. The transactions which are after the latest checkpoint must be redone. So T2 must be redone. No need to redo the records which are before last checkpoint, so T4 need not be redone.

Initialize: xa, xb, ε, N // ε = convergence indicator

fb = f(xb)

i = 0

while (i < N and | fb | > ε) do

i = i + 1 // update counter

xt = ? // missing expression for
// intermediate value

xa= xb // reset xa

xb = xt // reset xb

fb = f(xb) // function value at new xb

end while

if |fb| > ε then // loop is terminated with i = N

write “Non-convergence”

else

write “return xb”

end if

Secant method direct formula

If we take first 10 elements, number of collisions taken by the hash function given by option (B) is less when compared to others.